Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders Edition. Contents Search. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. How to cite. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Carter, A.
The Vineland adaptive behavior scales: Supplementary norms for individuals with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28 4 , CrossRef Google Scholar. Farley, M.
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Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. Autism Research, 2 2 , — Kanne, S. The role of adaptive behavior in autism spectrum disorders: Implications for functional outcome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41 , — Kenworthy, L.
What Are the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales All About?
Adaptive behavior ratings correlate with symptomatology and IQ among individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders , 40 4 , — Klin, A. Adaptive behavior is generally not a mental health issue, since the focus is on developing positive behaviors, rather than deficits. Thus, some of the concerns about cultures that are less accepting of mental illness labels than the majority culture are much less relevant to adaptive behavior assessment. There seems to be little evidence that adaptive behavior assessment is as prone to cultural, racial, and ethnic bias as other areas of psychological testing.
Department of Health and Human Services, focuses on the miscommunication that may exist when the interviewer and the respondent speak different languages. In such instances, if a same-language or same-culture interviewer is not available, the clinician needs to be very aware of such possible miscommunications in order to obtain a valid interview. The primary use of adaptive behavior scales in the classification of mental retardation has frequently been confirmatory i. This use may result from concerns among clinicians about the robustness of adaptive behavior measures.
For the most part, such concerns result from considerations of the structure of measures e. Such concerns arise in part because intellectual performance, the other criterion associated with mental retardation, is measured by comprehensive intelligence tests that are the most thoroughly researched forms of psychological assessment Neisser et al. Research studies in the past decade that employ adaptive behavior measures have used them as outcome measures or to study the structure or dimensions of adaptive behavior, rather than behavioral development.
Clinicians may consequently believe adaptive behavior to be less well understood than intelligence. Newer adaptive behavior scales evidence more robust psychometric properties than older scales. In this section, we discuss a variety of psychometric features of adaptive behavior scales that have implications for decision making about mental retardation.
The initial, and probably primary, application of adaptive behavior scales in clinical practice has been to assess the behavioral development of children thought to have mental retardation. Thus, most norming samples, item development, and scale selection have been targeted at groups ages 3 to 18 or This facilitates the early identification of preschool children at risk of mental retardation and permits confirmation of persisting developmental delays.
Adult norming samples are often included as well, but they tend to consist of people with already identified disabilities.
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Thus, adaptive behavior scales have particular relevance in application with preschoolers and with teens, who are often participants in Supplemental Security Income SSI determinations or redeterminations. However, depending on the age range of adult participants without disabilities sampled during norming studies, the ceiling i. Measures of behavioral functioning or responsiveness of children younger than 36 months have not been strengths of many adaptive behavior measures.
Infants and toddlers may more appropriately be assessed with more specialized measures in most cases. Floor and ceiling effects are also evident as developmental range effects.
Scales typically include items that permit behavioral assessments for young children and adolescents without disabilities i. For older adolescents, ages 18 to 21, the difficulty level of items often permits identification of either delayed or typical skills. Thus, to the extent that a young adult with mild mental retardation has selected skills that are well developed relative to others, it may not be accurate to describe those skills in developmental terms. Instead, it may be possible to establish only that their skills are superior to those achieved by other young adults with.
Some data suggest that ceiling and developmental range effects hinder the full description of skill assets for some individuals with mild mental retardation. In unpublished data on some 27, people with mild mental retardation, between 75 and percent of participants obtained perfect scores percent on three of five indices of one scale J. Brown, personal correspondence, June 17, Because adaptive behavior scales are designed with applicability for a wide age range but with primary emphasis on childhood and adolescence, some items may not be suitably worded or may not reflect a performance that is age-relevant.
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For example, an item may tap skills associated only with childhood e. Some scales contain provisions for alternative items or alternative performance of items. However, depending on the nature of these provisions, they may reduce the comparability of measures of the related skills from different adaptive behavior scales. In other instances, scales may be constructed such that they are relevant to only certain age groups e.
The two versions of the AAMR ABS differ with respect to the age groups emphasized and the settings about which items are structured and weighted in item selection. Adaptive behavior scales are structured to be comprehensive without being cumbersome Adams, Consequently, several features must be balanced. A number of factors and descriptive categories of behavioral development must be represented adequately in order to ensure comprehensiveness and documentation of both strengths and limitations for clinical and diagnostic purposes.
The number of items associated with each descriptive category must be sufficient to provide a scale and to be applicable across age ranges. A relatively wide age range must be represented. In balancing these factors, item density, that is, the inclusion of multiple items reflecting age-typical performance at a range of ages, must be maintained at a fairly uniform level. This means that within any one subscale of an adaptive behavior scale, for example, there may be only one or two items typical of performance for a year-old. When subscale scores are aggregated into summary scores, this results in a meaningful number of age-relevant items, although the items sampled in each subscale are limited.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale - Wikipedia
For this reason, some manuals recommend that clinicians fully explore the nature of tasks that the focal person performs that may be age typical e. Nonetheless, it should always be recognized that items in adaptive behavior measures represent a sampling of items that have passed reliability and validity screens, rather than a complete characterization of adaptive behavior. Because adaptive behavior scales are typically completed through interview of informants or direct responses marking of a protocol by the informant , the reliability and the validity of informant responses have been particular concerns.
These concerns are heightened when. Developers have addressed this issue through several strategies: 1 assessing the interrater and test-retest reliabilities of measures, 2 providing instructions to raters for coding items e. Reliabilities are initially assessed at the item level and then at the scale and factor levels.
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Current measures evidence acceptable interrater and test-retest reliability, with consistency scores at levels of. Similarly, adequate internal consistency of subscales or domains is documented using split-half or alpha coefficients. Full details on standardization and reliabilities are provided in the manuals associated with the major adaptive behavior scales Adams, ; Bruininks et al.
Additional discussion is provided in Chapter 3. Validity can be categorized in terms of: 1 content validity evidence of content relevance, representativeness, and technical quality ; 2 substantive validity theoretical rationale ; 3 structural validity the fidelity of the scoring structure ; 4 generalization validity generalization to the population and across populations ; 5 external validity applications to multitrait-multimethod comparison ; and 6 consequential validity bias, fairness, and justice; the social consequence of the assessment to the society—Messick, Technical manuals present analyses of data gathered in the process of test development that addresses content validity in terms of representativeness and inferences from age norms , substantive validity in that they present either a theoretical or empirically derived model of adaptive behavior to which the scale conforms , generalization validity with respect to differing age or disability groups , external validity in terms of concurrence with previous or contemporary adaptive behavior measures.
As previously noted, primary concerns in the use of adaptive behavior scales in eligibility determination decisions center on informant bias. Manuals for the major adaptive behavior scales encourage the use of multiple informants, for example, teachers and parents.
This allows the rater to obtain a complete picture of the adaptive functioning of the person being assessed. It also allows for reconciliation of ratings among these informants.
The Application of Adaptive Behaviour Models: A Systematic Review
Federal review of the SSI program has indicated that such deception is an uncommon occurrence. Another psychometric concern is whether the norming samples are adequate. Although normed on smaller samples than comprehensive intelligence tests use, current adaptive behavior measures typically have adequate norming samples in relation to both representation of people with and without mental retardation and representation of age groups in the population in relation to the age span of the measure.
It consisted of 3, children ages birth through 18 years 11 months of age, including 99 children in special or gifted education among the 2, who were of school age. Bias refers to a consistent distortion of scores that is attributed to demographic factors, principally nonmodifiable personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and ethnic or cultural membership. In the United States there have been significant concerns about the relationship between ethnicity or racial origin and performance on intelligence tests Neisser et al. This has generalized to adaptive behavior measures.
As the importance of adaptive behavior measures in classification of mental retardation has increased, this concern has been heightened as disproportionate numbers of minority children have been identified as having mental retardation, primarily because of low-income status and the overrepresentation of individuals with mental retardation among low-income people Boyle et al.
Some e. The result is an overidentification of skill limita-. However, research that indicates a causal relationship between the childrearing practices of minority families in North America and developmental delay is very limited. Comparative research examining the relationship between minority status and pronounced delays that are not accounted for by socioeconomic factors is also limited. However, available data are sufficient to raise concerns that such issues should be studied further Bryant et al. To some extent, inclusion of participants representative of the general population, including racial and ethnic minorities, in norming samples should mitigate against biases in scoring of adaptive behavior scales.
Although research from the s and s found comparable performance on adaptive behavior scales among majority and minority ethnic groups Bryant et al. These include such considerations as interviewing informants in their primary language and dialect, and the comparability of translations of items in adaptive behavior scales to particular languages and dialects, including dialects in English e. Noncomparability of items may alter norms due to item wording that requires a higher developmental level of performance in the translated item.
Also, English language norms may be lower than the typical performance of a same-age child in another culture. Cross-cultural and cultural subgroup studies of adaptive behavior differences among ethnic, racial, or national groups are certainly needed, but evi-. Nonetheless, culturally competent assessment practices require consideration of the developmental impacts of cultural practices or language differences among examiners, examinees, and informants that may affect the validity of the clinical information collected and interpreted.
In instances in which the informant is bilingual, it may be appropriate to probe interview responses in both languages. There are at least published adaptive behavior instruments that have been used for diagnosis, research, program evaluation, administration, and individualized programming. Some of these scales were developed to serve only one of these purposes; however, several have attempted to include both the breadth required for diagnosis and the depth required for clinical use.